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Pediatric Care

Abdominal Pain - Stress Related
Pain or discomfort in the stomach (abdomen or belly). The stomach pains occur when your child is worried about something. This is often called the “worried stomach”.
Abdominal Pain - Symptom
Pain or discomfort in the stomach (abdomen or belly). Pain found between the bottom of the rib cage and the groin crease.
Acetaminophen (Tylenol) Dosage Table
Acetaminophen (Tylenol) Dosage Table
Acne
Acne is a skin condition caused by blocked oil glands. Main symptoms are pimples and blackheads on the face.
Amoxicillin Rash
A harmless rash that occurs when a child is taking an antibiotic. The rash is not from a drug allergy. Occurs in 10% of children who are taking amoxicillin.
Anal Fissure
An anal fissure is a shallow tear in the skin around the anus. This is the cause in over 90% of children with blood in the stools.
Anal Itching
Itching of the anus. Occurs on a repeated basis.
Anesthesia and Your Child: Information for Parents
Any time a child requires a hospital visit, it can cause anxiety for both a parent and the child. This especially may be the case when the visit involves any type of procedure that might require anesthesia. Examples of such procedures are surgery, medical imaging, and certain tests to examine the stomach or intestines. Read on for more information from the American Academy of Pediatrics about anesthesia.
Anesthesia and Your Child: The Day of the Procedure
Some hospitals allow 1 support person (usually a parent) to go with a child into the operating room or other area where the child is to receive anesthesia. This may be possible for scheduled procedures or surgeries but not for emergency surgery. Check on the policy at your hospital ahead of time. Your child’s anesthesiologist will make the final decision. Remember, if you stay with your child when anesthesia is given, the purpose of being there is to support your child and ease her fears. Do this for the child, not for yourself.
Animal Bite
Bite or claw wound from a pet, farm or wild animal.
Antibiotics - When Do They Help?
Antibiotics are strong medicines that can kill bacteria. However, they are often over-used in our society
Appetite Slump - Young Child
You are concerned that your child is not eating enough food each day. It may seem like your child is never hungry.
Arm Injury
Injuries to the arm (shoulder to hand). Injuries to a bone, muscle, joint or ligament.
Arm Pain - Muscle Strain
Arm muscle pain from hard work or sports (muscle overuse). Pain is not caused by an injury. Also called muscle overuse syndrome
Arm Pain - Symptom
Pain in the arm (shoulder to fingers). Includes shoulder, elbow, wrist and finger joints. Includes minor muscle strains from hard work or sports (overuse). Pain is not caused by an injury
Asthma Attack
Your child is having an asthma attack. Your child has been diagnosed in the past with asthma.
Athlete's Foot
Fungus infection of the feet. Causes an itchy rash on the feet and between the toes
Baby Bottle Tooth Decay - Prevention
Baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) is the main type of tooth decay in toddlers. It’s caused by excessive exposure to milk or juice. That happens with crib bottles or tote bottles.
Back Pain - Muscle Strain
Back muscle pain from carrying or lifting heavy things
Back Pain - Symptom
Pain or discomfort in the upper, mid or lower back. Includes minor muscle strain from back overuse
Bed Bug Bite
Bites from bed bugs.
Bedwetting
Wetting the bed at night while asleep. The medical name is nocturnal enuresis
Bee or Yellow Jacket Sting
Stung by a honeybee, bumblebee, hornet, wasp, or yellow jacket. Over 95 percent of stings are from honey bees or yellow jackets. The main symptoms are pain and redness.
Behavior Training - Consequences
Consequences are what happens after a child breaks a rule. All children need universal rules and limits about what is good and bad behavior. They need consequences to help them learn the right choice. If the consequence is unpleasant (negative feedback or a punishment), the child is less likely to repeat the bad behavior.
Behavior Training - Rules and Discipline Basics
Children come into this world impulsive and undisciplined. When they start to walk, they begin to get into trouble. They do not develop much self-control until 3 years of age. They need to be taught safe and socially acceptable behavior.
Biting
The bad habit of biting people. One of the most unacceptable of aggressive behaviors.
Blisters - Friction
Raised pocket of clear fluid, covered by skin. Friction blisters usually occur on the palms, fingers, heels or toes.
Boil
Staph skin infection causing a painful red lump in the skin
Bottle-Feeding (Formula) Questions
Common questions asked about formula and feeding from a bottle.
Breast Buds
A small disc-shaped lump felt under the nipple (areola). Indicates the start of puberty
Breastfeeding - Baby Questions
Breastfeeding questions about your baby
Breastfeeding - Milk and Feeding Questions
Breastfeeding questions about feeding, milk and supply
Breastfeeding - Mother's Breast Symptoms
Breastfeeding questions about mother’s breast symptoms
Breastfeeding - Mother's Diet and Alcohol Use
Breastfeeding questions about mother’s diet and alcohol use. Main concern is how much gets into breastmilk and could this affect the baby.
Breastfeeding - Mother's Illness
Breastfeeding questions about mother’s illness
Breastfeeding - Mother's Medicines and Smoking
Breastfeeding questions about mother’s medicines, drugs or smoking. Main concern is how much gets into breastmilk and could this affect the baby.
Breath-Holding Spell
A spell that includes holding the breath, then turning blue and passing out.
Bronchiolitis (RSV)
A viral infection of the smallest airways in the lungs. Wheezing is the main symptom. Average age for getting bronchiolitis is 6 months (Range: birth to 2 years).
Bruises
Bruises to the skin anywhere on the body. Bruises are bleeding into the skin from damaged blood vessels
Burns
Burns to the skin. A burn is a heat, chemical or electrical injury to the skin
Canker Sores
Painful, shallow ulcers (sores) on the inner lips or cheeks. Not caused by an infection
Cellulitis
A bacterial infection of the skin. Main symptom is spreading redness that is painful to the touch
Chalazion (Lump on Eyelid)
A chalazion is a lump in the middle of the eyelid. It’s caused by a blocked off oil gland.
Chest Pain - Sore Muscles
Pain or discomfort in the chest wall from muscle overuse.
Chest Pain - Symptom
Pain or discomfort in the chest wall from muscle overuse.
Chickenpox
Chickenpox is a viral rash all over the body
Choosing a Pediatrician
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has developed this information to help you
Circumcision Problems
A circumcision is the removal of most of the male foreskin. Questions about caring for the normal circumcised penis in a baby boy.
Cold Sores (Fever Blisters)
Sores on the outer lip caused by the herpes virus. Sores tend to recur
Colds (Age 0-5)
The common cold is a viral infection of the nose and throat. Main symptoms are a runny nose and sore throat.
Colds (Age 6-21)
The common cold is a viral infection of the nose and throat. Main symptoms are a runny nose and sore throat.
Colic (Crying Baby)
A baby less than 3 months old with excessive crying. Crying is the only symptom and baby is normal when not crying.
Complementary and Integrative Medicine: What Parents Need to Know
While most children in North America receive conventional medicine when they are sick, many parents want to know about natural therapies too. Alternative, complementary, and integrative medicine and folk remedies are some of the words used to describe these different therapies. Read on for more information.
Connected Kids: Clinical Guide
CONNECTED KIDS: This extensive clinical guide to the American Academy of Pediatrics' Connected Kids Program contains an overview of all of the program's component parts, a counseling schedule, ideas for practice implementation, and other supplemental materials. The program is designed to help pediatricians discuss important social/developmental issues with their patients/parents.
Constipation (Age 1-5)
Can’t pass a stool or pain (crying) when passing a stool. Can’t pass a stool after straining or pushing longer than 10 minutes. Passes stools infrequently. Pass stools every 3 days or longer.
Constipation (Age 6-21)
Can’t pass a stool or pain (crying) when passing a stool. Can’t pass a stool after straining or pushing longer than 10 minutes. Passes stools infrequently. Pass stools every 3 days or longer.
Constipation (Baby)
Can’t pass a stool or pain (crying) when passing a stool. Can’t pass a stool after straining or pushing longer than 10 minutes. Passes stools infrequently. Your child is less than 1 year old.
Constipation - Bowel Cleanout for Stool Impaction
A bowel cleanout is a medical treatment plan ordered by your doctor. It is used for emptying out the rectum and colon (lower bowel).
Contact Dermatitis - Allergic
Red itchy area of the skin from contact with an allergic substance
Contact Dermatitis - Irritant
Red area of the skin from contact with an irritant
Cough - Allergic
Cough caused by pollens or other allergic substances.
Cough - Symptom (Age 0-5)
A cough is the sound made when the cough reflex clears the lungs. It helps protect the lungs from infections. A coughing fit or spell is over 5 minutes of nonstop coughing. Coughs can be dry (no mucus) or wet (with mucus).
Cough - Symptom (Age 6-21)
A cough is the sound made when the cough reflex clears the lungs. It helps protect the lungs from infections. A coughing fit or spell is over 5 minutes of nonstop coughing. Coughs can be dry (no mucus) or wet (with mucus)
Cough - Viral (Age 0-5)
Viral infection of the lower airway (the bronchi) that go to the lungs. This is the most common cause of a cough in children. Medical names are viral bronchitis, lower respiratory infection, LRI
Cough - Viral (Age 6-21)
Viral infection of the lower airway (the bronchi) that go to the lungs. This is the most common cause of a cough in children. Medical names are viral bronchitis, lower respiratory infection, LRI
Coughs and Colds: Medicines or Home Remedies?
Every parent wants to help their child get over cough and cold symptoms. You could buy a non-prescription cough and cold medicine. Or you could turn to some home remedies. Which is better?
Cracked Skin (Feet)
Cracked skin on the toes or feet
Cracked Skin (Hands)
Cracked skin on the fingers or hand
Cradle Cap
A scaly rash on the scalp that starts in newborns.
Croup
Croup is an infection of the voicebox (larynx) caused by a virus.
Cuts and Scrapes
Cut or scrape injuries to the skin anywhere on the body
Diaper Rash
Any rash on the skin covered by a diaper. Diaper-wearing age group (birth to 3 years).
Diarrhea (Age 1-5)
Diarrhea is the sudden increase in the number and looseness of stools. Diarrhea means 2 or more watery stools. Reason: a few loose stools can be normal with changes in diet. Most diarrhea is caused by a viral infection of the intestines.
Diarrhea (Age 6-21)
Diarrhea is the sudden increase in the number and looseness of stools. Diarrhea means 2 or more watery stools. Reason: a few loose stools can be normal with changes in diet. Most diarrhea is caused by a viral infection of the intestines.
Diarrhea (Baby on Breastmilk)
Diarrhea is the sudden increase in the number and looseness of stools. Diarrhea means 2 or more watery or very loose stools. Reason: 1 loose stool can be normal with changes in diet. Most diarrhea is caused by a viral infection of the intestines.
Diarrhea (Baby on Formula)
Diarrhea is the sudden increase in the number and looseness of stools. Diarrhea means 2 or more watery or very loose stools. Reason: 1 loose stool can be normal with changes in diet. Most diarrhea is caused by a viral infection of the intestines.
Diarrhea on Antibiotics
Diarrhea begins while taking an antibiotic. Diarrhea means 2 or more watery or very loose stools. Reason: 1 loose stool can be normal.
Dizziness - From Dehydration
Dizziness is a sensation of light-headedness or feeling faint
Dizziness - From Sudden or Prolonged Standing
Diarrhea means 2 or more watery or very loose stools. Reason: 1 loose stool can be normal.
Dizziness - Symptom
Dizziness is a sensation of light-headedness or feeling faint
Drinking Fluids During Illness
Child drinks less than normal amounts of fluid during an illness
Dry Skin
The skin is dry and rough
Ear - Congestion
Ear Congestion is a stuffy or plugged up feeling in the ear. Crackling or popping noise in the ear. Hearing is often muffled
Ear - Swimmer's
An infection or irritation of the skin that lines the ear canal. Caused by lots of swimming or using cotton swabs.The medical name is otitis external.
Ear - Touching Habit (Normal)
A young child who touches, pulls, tugs, or pokes at the ear. No crying or report of ear pain
Ear Canal - Itchy
A child who itches the ear canal. No crying or report of ear pain.
Ear Fluid (Middle Ear Effusion)
The buildup of fluid in the middle ear (the space behind the eardrum). The space is normally filled with air. The presence of fluid dampens the hearing.
Ear Infection - Bacterial
A bacterial infection of the middle ear (the space behind the eardrum).
Ear Infection - Ruptured Eardrum
The eardrum has ruptured and cloudy fluid drains from the ear canal. Caused by a bacterial infection of the middle ear (the space behind the eardrum).
Ear Infection - Viral
A viral infection of the middle ear (the space behind the eardrum).
Ear Infections - Prevention
Advice about how to prevent recurrent ear infections.
Ear Injury
Injuries to the outer ear, ear canal or eardrum.
Ear Pierced (Healed) - Minor Infection
Minor pierced ear infection. More than 6 weeks since ear was pierced. Initial healing went well. New symptoms are localized redness, swelling and crusting just at earring site. Spreading redness is more serious and needs to be seen.
Ear Pierced (New) - Minor Infection
Minor pierced ear infection. Less than 6 weeks since ear was pierced. Symptoms are localized redness, swelling and crusting just at earring site. Spreading redness is more serious and needs to be seen
Ear Tube Surgery
Ear tubes are tiny plastic tubes that are placed across the eardrum. They are placed by an ear (ENT) surgeon. Also called ventilation tubes, tympanostomy tubes or PE tubes
Earache - From Air Travel
Ear pain that starts during air travel. Medical name is barotitis media or barotrauma.
Earache - Symptom
Pain in or around the ear (an earache). The older child complains about ear pain. Younger child acts like he did with last ear infection or cries a lot.
Earwax Buildup
Concerns about earwax (cerumen) buildup or blockage. Questions about earwax removal
Eczema (Atopic Dermatitis)
Eczema is a chronic dry skin disease with recurrent flare-ups of severe itching.The rash is red and itchy.
Emergency Symptoms Not to Miss
A list of emergency symptoms that are seen in childhood. If your child develops one of these symptoms, you want to recognize it early on
Eye Allergy
An allergic reaction of the eyes. Main symptoms are itchy and watery eyes. Sometimes, the eyes can sting or burn.
Eye Foreign Body
A foreign body (FB) or object becomes stuck in the eye.
Eye Infection - Bacterial
Bacterial infection of the eye. Main symptom is lots of yellow or green discharge (pus) in the eye.
Eye Infection - Viral
A viral infection of the eye. The main symptom is a pink or red eye.
Eye Injury
Injuries to the eye, eyelid, and area around the eye.
Eye Irritation
Eye irritation from getting an irritating substance in the eye. The main symptom is a pink or red eye.
Eye Pink - Symptom
Red or pink color of the white of the eye.
Fever (Age 0-5)
Your child has a fever if: Rectal, Ear or Forehead temperature: 100.4° F (38.0° C) or higher. Oral or Mouth temperature: 100° F (37.8° C) or higher.
Fever (Age 6-21)
Your child has a fever if: Ear or Forehead temperature: 100.4° F (38.0° C) or higher. Oral or Mouth temperature: 100° F (37.8° C) or higher.
Fever - Facts Versus Myths
Fever is a body temperature of 100.4 F (38 C) or higher. Fever is a symptom, not a disease.
Fever - How to Take the Temperature
Questions about how to take the temperature and when is it a fever.
Fifth Disease
Fifth disease is a viral rash that starts with red cheeks. Then it spreads to the shoulders and upper thighs.
Financial Assistance—Autism Toolkit
Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are able to get support from programs funded through their state or county. Some examples are financial help, education support, medical care, job skills training, and residential or living services. Some supports are available to all children because of federal laws, such as a free public education, including special education if needed. Other public benefits are based on need, such as financial or how serious the disability is. Most children with ASD, especially those who also have intellectual disability, will qualify for these benefits.
Finger Injury
Injuries to fingers
Fingernail Infection - Bacterial
Mild bacterial infection of the skin fold next to the fingernail
Fingernail Infection - Yeast
Mild chronic infection of the skin fold next to the fingernail. The medical name is chronic paronychia
Fire Ant Sting
Stung by a fire ant. Fire ant stings are more common in the Southern U.S.
Food Allergy
Allergic reaction to a food.
Food Poisoning
Rapid onset of vomiting and diarrhea after eating a bad food.
For Today's Teens: A Message From Your Pediatrician
Now that you are getting older, you have different health needs than you did when you were younger. However, your pediatrician is still there to help you stay healthy.
Foreskin Care Questions
Questions about caring for the normal uncircumcised penis in a baby boy. Includes questions about foreskin retraction. Smegma questions are covered.
Foreskin Infection
A bacterial infection of the space between the foreskin and head of the penis. The medical name is posthitis
Frequency-Urgency Syndrome
New onset of passing urine often while awake. This is called urinary frequency
Frostbite
Frostbite is a cold injury to the skin. The ears, nose, fingers, and toes are most often affected
Granuloma Annulare
Granuloma Annulare (GA) is a bumpy skin condition in the shape of a circle
Growing Pains
Growing pains are harmless pains that occur in the leg muscles. They are common and occur in 10 to 20% of children. They often start between ages 4 and 6.
Hair Loss - From Hair Twisting Habit
A nervous habit of twisting or pulling out the hair. The medical name for this is trichotillomania.
Hair Loss - From Severe Stress
Major thinning of the hair starting 3 months after a stressful event. The medical name for this type of hair loss is telogen effluvium.
Hair Loss - From Tight Hair Style
Broken hairs from tight braids or pony tails
Hand-Foot-And-Mouth Disease
Hand-Foot-And-Mouth Disease (HFMD) is a viral infection. Small red spots and tiny water blisters. Seen on the palms, fingers, soles and toes. The diagnosis cannot be made without these.
Head Injury
Injuries to the head. Includes the scalp, skull and brain
Headache - Migraine
Your child is having a migraine headache. It is like previous migraines
Headache - Muscle Tension
Pain or discomfort in the muscles of the scalp. This includes the forehead to the back of the head
Headache - Symptom
Pain or discomfort of the head. This includes the forehead to the back of the head
Heartburn
Pain or burning caused by irritation of the lower esophagus from stomach acid. The esophagus is the tube from mouth to stomach. Pain is located in the lower chest or upper belly. Also, called acid indigestion
Heat Rash
A fine pink rash caused by overheating. Mainly on the face, neck, chest, and upper back
Heat Reactions
Symptoms after being in high temperatures (such as heat waves). Symptoms after hard work or sports during hot weather.
Hernia - Inguinal
A hernia is a bulge in the groin or upper scrotum. The bulge contains a loop of intestine. It slides through a defect in the muscles of the lower abdomen.
Herpangina
A viral infection that causes little ulcers in the back of the mouth
Herpes Gingivostomatitis
A viral infection of the mouth and lips in young children
Hitting and Aggressive Behavior
Hitting is the most common type of aggressive behavior. Others include slapping, pinching, scratching, poking, hair-pulling, biting, kicking, shoving, and knocking down.
Hives
Hives is a rash made up of raised pink bumps with pale centers. Most often, rash is very itchy
Human Bite
Bite from a human child or teen.
Ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) Dosage Table
Ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) Dosage Table
Imaging and Medical Radiation Safety: Important Information for Parents
Pediatricians use different tests and tools to help them diagnose and treat injuries and illnesses. This handout was written by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) to answer questions about imaging and medical radiation safety.
Imaging Tests: A Look Inside Your Child's Body
If your pediatrician isn't sure what the cause of your child's illness or injury is, imaging tests may be needed. Imaging tests are used to “look” inside the body. They can help diagnose injuries and illnesses from broken bones to cancer. Some tests can even find problems before symptoms appear. Read this handout to learn more about imaging tests.
Impetigo - Infected Sores
Coin-shaped sores on the skin. Covered by scabs or crusts that are the color of honey
Incentives for Motivating Children
Incentives are rewards or prizes that are given for desired behaviors. The reward must be strongly desired by the child. You can ask your child for ideas.
Influenza Exposure
Exposure (Close Contact) to a person with influenza. Your child has NO symptoms of influenza (no fever, cough, sore throat, runny nose).
Influenza Seasonal (Age 0-5)
Your child has symptoms of influenza (flu). Flu is a viral infection. The nose, throat, and upper parts of the airway are involved. Family members or close friends have symptoms of flu
Influenza Seasonal (Age 6-21)
Your child has symptoms of influenza (flu). Flu is a viral infection. The nose, throat, and upper parts of the airway are involved. Family members or close friends have symptoms of flu
Insect Bite
Bite from an insect (bug).
Intervention Approaches Used for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder—Autism Toolkit
If you have concerns about your child’s development and behavior, your child should be seen to tell if she needs therapy. You do not need a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to begin many kinds of therapy. There can be a long wait for ASD diagnosis, so it is important to start therapy while your child is still waiting for a diagnosis. However, once your child is diagnosed with ASD, she may be able to get more interventions, such as applied behavioral analysis (ABA). It is important to have your child seen by an ASD specialist even if your child is already receiving intervention.
Jaundiced Newborn
Jaundice means the skin has turned a yellow color. Bilirubin is the pigment that turns the skin yellow.
Jock Itch
Fungus infection and rash of the groin and inner, upper thighs. Jock itch is also called ringworm of the crotch
Joint Hypermobility Syndrome (Normal Loose Joints)
Children with this syndrome have loose joints. Movement at their joints are excessive. Joints can be stretched beyond the normal range. Affects over 10% of children.
Keratosis Pilaris
A chronic condition of dry, rough skin on the upper arms. Called Keratosis Pilaris (KP)
Labial Fusion
The labia minora (vaginal lips or folds) are stuck together. Also called labial adhesions
Laboratory Tests—Autism Toolkit
All children have some laboratory tests at birth and as part of regular checkups. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often need more tests. These tests can help find the cause of the condition or problems related to it that may not be obvious. This helps guide your child’s doctor in treating your child best.
Laryngitis - Allergic
Allergic reaction of the voicebox (larynx) and vocal cords.
Laryngitis - Viral
Viral infection of the voicebox (larynx) and vocal cords.
Leg Injury
Injuries to the leg (hip to foot). Injuries to a bone, muscle, joint or ligament. Muscle pain caused by too much exercise or work is covered in Leg Pain. (This is called overuse.)
Leg Injury
Injuries to the leg (hip to foot). Injuries to a bone, muscle, joint or ligament. Muscle pain caused by too much exercise or work is covered in Leg Pain. (This is called overuse.)
Leg Pain - Muscle Cramps
Leg muscle cramps from sports or hard work (muscle overuse). The pain is not caused by an injury. Also called muscle spasms or heat cramps
Leg Pain - Muscle Cramps
Leg muscle cramps from sports or hard work (muscle overuse). The pain is not caused by an injury. Also called muscle spasms or heat cramps
Leg Pain - Muscle Strain
Leg muscle pain from hard work or sports (muscle overuse). Pain is not caused by an injury. Also called muscle overuse syndrome
Leg Pain - Muscle Strain
Leg muscle pain from hard work or sports (muscle overuse). Pain is not caused by an injury. Also called muscle overuse syndrome
Leg Pain - Symptom
Pain in the legs. Includes hip, knee, ankle and toe joints. Includes minor muscle strain from hard work or sports (overuse). The pain is not caused by an injury.
Leg Pain - Symptom
Pain in the legs. Includes hip, knee, ankle and toe joints. Includes minor muscle strain from hard work or sports (overuse). The pain is not caused by an injury.
Lice - Head
Head lice is a scalp infection with tiny gray bugs (lice). Lice lay many white eggs (nits) in the hair
Lice - Head
Head lice is a scalp infection with tiny gray bugs (lice). Lice lay many white eggs (nits) in the hair
Lyme Disease
Lyme Disease is a bacterial infection spread from a deer tick bite.
Lymph Node - Normal
Lymph nodes are small bean-shaped lumps found under the skin. Also called lymph glands
Lymph Node Infection - Bacterial
A bacterial infection of a lymph node. Main symptom is the sudden onset of one large painful node
Lymph Node Infection - Viral
A viral infection of lymph nodes. Main symptom is swollen nodes
Measles Vaccine Rash
Mild pink rash that occurs 6-12 days after the measles shot
Medication - Giving Liquid Medicine to Cooperative Child
Techniques for giving liquid medicines to a child who cooperates
Medication - Giving Pills to Cooperative Child
Techniques for giving pills or capsules to a child who cooperates
Medication - Refusal to Take
Your child refuses to take a liquid medicine
Molluscum Contagiosum
Molluscum are small raised growths that have a smooth, waxy surface. Viral infection of the skin
Mono (Infectious Mononucleosis)
Mononucleosis (mono) is a viral infection of the lymph nodes. Main symptoms are sore throat and widespread swollen lymph nodes
Mosquito Bite
Bites from a mosquito. Cause itchy, red bumps. Often they look like a hive.
Motion Sickness
Symptoms triggered by a spinning, rocking or rolling motions. The main symptoms are dizziness and nausea
Mouth Injury
Injuries to the lips and mouth. Includes inner cheeks and the roof of the mouth (hard and soft palate)
Mouth Ulcers (Mouth Sores) - Symptom
Painful, shallow ulcers (sores) on the lining of the mouth. Found on the gums, inner lips, inner cheeks, or tongue
Nasal Rinses Children and Teens
Rinsing the nose with salt water can help wash out dust and mucus. The water also rinses out germs and pollen.
Nasal Suction
Nasal congestion can be the worst part of a cold for young children. It can keep your baby from feeding and sleeping well.
Neck Pain - Muscle Strain
Pain or discomfort in the back, side or front of the neck. Includes minor muscle strain from neck overuse
Newborn - Flying and Mountain Travel
Questions about flying or mountain travel with a newborn baby.
Newborn Appearance
Common questions asked about the normal newborn’s appearance and body
Newborn Birthmarks
Common questions asked about normal birthmarks in newborns. Note: Rashes such as baby acne are not covered here.
Newborn Illness - How To Recognize
How infections and other serious diseases can present in newborns
Newborn Rashes
Common questions asked about normal skin rashes in newborns. Note: Mongolian spots and birthmarks are not covered here.
Newborn Reflexes and Behaviors
Common questions asked about newborn noises, reflexes and behaviors. These are normal and not signs of illness.
Nose Allergy (Hay Fever)
An allergic reaction of the nose. Main symptoms are an itchy nose, clear discharge and sneezing.
Nose Injury
Injuries to the inside or outside of the nose.
Nosebleed
Bleeding from 1 or both nostrils. Not caused by an injury.
Oral Allergy Syndrome
A minor allergic reaction to some raw fruits and vegetables. Causes itching and swelling only to the lips and tongue
Overweight Older Child - Prevention and Treatment
Your child is gaining weight too fast or: Your child looks chubby or fat or: Your child doesn’t like sports because his weight makes it hard keep up or: Your child is getting teased about his weight.
Overweight Toddler - Preventing Over-Feeding and Over-Eating
Currently 10% of 2 to 5 year old children in the U.S. are overweight. The main cause is over-eating. Overeating means eating more calories daily than are needed for normal growth and activity.
Pacifiers
A pacifier is an artificial nipple for a baby to suck on. It can be used when they are not hungry.
Pediatric Subspecialists
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has created a series of fact sheets about different surgical and medical pediatric subspecialists to whom your children may be referred. The fact sheets are available on the official AAP Web site for parents: www.HealthyChildren.org.
Penis - Contact Dermatitis
Rash on the male genitals (penis or scrotum)
Perioral Food Rash
A rash around the mouth from contact with food. Mostly seen in babies and toddlers
Picky Eater
A picky eater refuses certain foods. He won’t try new foods. Vegetables and meats are the most common ones. You are not concerned about how much he eats or his appetite.
Pinworm Seen
A tiny, harmless worm that lives in the colon (large bowel). It causes itching of the anus.
Pityriasis Alba
Small pale spots on the face. Called Pityriasis Alba (PA)
Pityriasis Rosea
Pityriasis Rosea (PR) is a widespread skin rash. Special finding: a large "herald patch" that precedes the rash by 1 to 2 weeks
Pneumonia - Bacterial
A bacterial infection of the lungs.
Pneumonia - Viral
A viral infection of the lungs.
Poison Ivy - Oak - Sumac
A very itchy rash with blisters. Caused by contact with the poison ivy plant
Puncture Wound
The skin is punctured by a pointed narrow object (such as a needle). Puncture wounds that contain splinters or slivers are covered elsewhere.
Rash Localized - Cause Unknown
Rash or redness on one small part of the body (localized). Red or pink rash. Small spots or solid redness.
Rash Widespread - Cause Unknown
A pink rash that is all over the body (widespread). Small or large pink spots
Ringworm of the Body
Skin infection with 1 or more ring-shaped spots. Has a rough edge and clearing of the center
Ringworm of the Scalp
A fungus infection of the scalp. The medical name is Tinea capitis
Roseola
Roseola is widespread fine pink rash that’s caused by a specific virus. Classic feature is that the rash is preceded by 3 to 5 days of high fever.
Scabies
A very itchy rash caused by the scabies mite. A mite is a tiny, invisible bug that burrows under the skin
Scarlet Fever
Scarlet Fever is a speckled, red rash all over due to the Strep bacteria
School Avoidance
Healthy children who miss lots of school. They stay home because of vague physical symptoms. Also called school phobia.
School Health Centers and Your Child
School health centers are becoming more and more common. Most handle medical emergencies, provide health screenings and refer students to doctors for health problems. A growing number of these centers also offer health services such as immunizations and physical examinations. Therapies for children with special needs may also be available.
Shingles (Zoster)
Shingles is a rash that looks like a stripe or band. It’s only on one side of the body
Should My Child Join a Clinical Trial?
Clinical trials are research studies. They are designed to learn more about ways to prevent, detect, or treat diseases. Clinical trials can also help people with chronic (long-term) illnesses find better ways to live each day with their illness.
Sibling Rivalry Toward a Newborn
Sibling rivalry refers to the normal jealousy of young children toward a new brother or sister. The most common symptom is increased demands for attention. For example, the older child wants to be held and carried, especially when the mother is busy with the newborn.
Siblings Arguing
Most siblings argue and quarrel. They verbally fight over possessions, space on the sofa, time in the bathroom, or the last donut. On most days, siblings are friends and companions, rather than rivals. Some friction occurs in most close relationships.
Sinus Infection - Bacterial
A bacterial infection of one or more of the sinuses
Sinus Infection - Viral
A viral infection of the sinuses. A normal part of the common cold
Sinus Pain or Congestion - Symptom
Fullness, pressure or pain on the face over a sinus. Sinus pain occurs above the eyebrow, behind the eye, and under the cheekbone.
Sleep - Confusional Arousals
Confusional arousal is a partial wake-up in which children sit up in bed and talk, but usually don’t make much sense. They act confused and can’t be fully awakened
Sleep - Confusional Arousals
Confusional arousal is a partial wake-up in which children sit up in bed and talk, but usually don’t make much sense. They act confused and can’t be fully awakened
Sleep - Early Morning Riser
Children who wake up early before their parents do, usually between 5 and 6 AM. They come out of their bedroom and want everyone to get up. A few are still in the crib and they just cry.
Sleep - Nightmares
Nightmares are scary dreams that wake a child from sleep. Occasional bad dreams are normal at all ages.
Sleep Problem from Feeding Until Asleep
A baby over 6 months old who can’t sleep through the night (at least 7 straight hours). Wakes up and cries one or more times a night to be fed
Sleep Problem from Holding Until Asleep
A baby over 6 months old who can’t sleep through the night (at least 7 straight hours). Wakes up and cries one or more times a night to be held.
Sleep Problems - Prevention
Good sleep habits don’t just happen. You need to have a plan. It’s far easier to prevent sleep problems than it is to treat them later.
Sleep Talking
Sleep talking is a partial wake-up in which children talk in their sleep. They act confused and can’t be fully awakened, but are usually calm
Sleep Terrors
Sleep terrors are partial wake-ups in which children act terrified. They act confused and can’t be fully awakened
Sleeping with Parents (Bed-Sharing) - How To End It
Your child sleeps with you during all or part of the night. You want to stop sharing your bed with your child
Sleeping with Parents (Bed-Sharing) - Pros and Cons
Sharing the bed with your child. Bed-sharing should be avoided during the first year of life. Reason: Safe sleep.
Sleepwalking
Sleepwalking is a partial wake-up in which children walk in their sleep. They act confused and can’t be fully awakened, but are usually calm.
Solid Foods (Baby Foods)
This topic deals with how to introduce solid (baby) foods to young infants. Baby foods are strained or pureed foods
Sore Throat - Symptom
Pain, discomfort or raw feeling of the throat. Pain is made worse when swallows
Spider Bite
Bite from a spider.
Spitting Up (Normal Reflux)
Spitting up (normal reflux) is 1 or 2 mouthfuls of breast milk or formula. No effort or crying with it
Splinters (Slivers)
A foreign body (FB) is stuck in the skin. Some examples are a splinter of wood or sliver of glass
Spoiled Children - Prevention
A spoiled child insists on having his own way. If demanding doesn’t work, he escalates. He uses tantrums and whining to get his way.
Sports Medicine Professionals (Care of the Young Athlete)
Athletes may deal with many different types of medical personnel after an injury. Athletes also may be referred by their primary care doctors to a sports medicine doctor or other sports medicine specialists for further evaluation and treatment. The following is information from the American Academy of Pediatrics about the most common sports medicine specialists.
Stools - Unusual Color
The stool color is strange or different. Normal stool colors are any shade of brown, tan, yellow or green. Colors that may be caused by a disease are red, black and white. Dark green may look like black, but dark green is a normal color.
Strep Exposure
Close contact with someone who has a Strep throat infection. Close contact means living in the same house with the infected person. It also includes close physical contact such as having a kissing relationship.
Stubborn Toddler
Your child says No to many normal requests. Your child disagrees with many of your normal suggestions. Your child constantly tests your rules
Sty
A sty is a red lump or pimple on the edge of an eyelid.
Sunburn
Red or blistered skin from too much sun. The redness, pain and swelling starts at 4 hours
Suture Questions
Common questions about sutures or stitches. Stapled wounds are treated the same as sutured wounds
Tear Duct - Blocked
The tear duct is blocked in 10% of newborns. The tear duct is the tube that carries tears from the eye to the nose
Teething
Teething is the normal process of new teeth working their way through the gums. Teeth come in between 6 and 24 months of age
Temper Tantrums
Tantrums are normal in toddlers. Tantrums may include whining, crying, screaming or yelling. It may also include pounding the floor, slamming a door, or breath-holding. Also called meltdowns or emotional outbursts.
Thin Body Type (Normal Slenderness)
Your child looks thin or slender. Their weight is more than 20% below the ideal weight for their height. However, your child is well-nourished, with a normal fat tissue layer (8–12 mm). This is measured by a skinfold calipers.
Throat Infection - Viral
A viral infection of the throat
Throat Infection - Strep
A bacterial infection of the throat caused by Strep
Thrush
Thrush is a yeast infection of the mouth in young babies. White patches in the front of the mouth are the hallmark
Tick Bite
A tick (small brown bug) is attached to the skin. A tick was removed from the skin.
Time-Out Technique
Time-out means putting a child in a boring place for a few minutes to correct a misbehavior. It’s the most effective consequence (discipline technique) for misbehavior in 2- to 5-year-old children. Every parent needs to know how to give a time-out.
Tinea Versicolor
Skin infection of teens and adults caused by a fungus. Tinea versicolor means "ringworm of many colors"
Toe Injury
Injuries to toes.
Toenail - Ingrown
The corner of the toenail grows into the skin around it. Almost always involves the big toe (great toe)
Toilet Readiness Training
Readiness training means preparing your child for later potty training. It increases his or her chances of success.
Toilet Training - How to Start
Your goal is to toilet train your child. Your child will be toilet trained when without reminders he can: Walk to the potty. Pull down his pants.
Toilet Training Resistance - Constipation from Stool Holding
A child who refuses to be toilet trained and passes stools into his underwear. The medical term is encopresis.
Toilet Training Resistance - Encopresis without Constipation
A child who refuses to be toilet trained. He passes stools into his underwear or pull-up. The medical term for this is encopresis.
Tongue - Geographic
Map-like red patches on the tongue. Cause not known
Tonsil Infection - Strep
A bacterial infection of the tonsils caused by Strep. Also called Strep tonsillitis
Tonsil Infection - Viral
A viral infection of the tonsils. Also called viral tonsillitis
Tooth Injury
Injury to a tooth
Toothache
Pain or discomfort in a tooth
Treating Your Child's Pain: Medical Procedures
During certain medical procedures, your child may experience pain. These procedures can include having blood drawn, having breathing or feeding tubes put in, or lumbar punctures (spinal taps). Luckily, pain from these activities does not last long. Read on to find out how your child's pain from medical procedures can be managed.
Treating Your Child's Pain: Surgery
Often after children have surgery, they have problems with pain. Luckily, there are ways to help ease this type of pain. Read on to find out how your child's pain from surgery can be managed.
Treatment of Sports Injuries (Care of the Young Athlete)
There is often more than one way to effectively treat an injury. Treatment programs are always adjusted to meet the individual needs of the athlete and the unique requirements of the athlete's sport or activity.
Umbilical Cord - Bleeding
Bleeding occurs from cord’s point of separation. The navel is also called the belly button or umbilicus
Umbilical Cord - Cord Care
Questions about how to care for the normal umbilical cord or navel in newborns. The navel is also called the belly button or umbilicus.
Umbilical Cord - Delayed Separation Past 3 Weeks
Cord is still attached after 3 weeks. The navel is also called the belly button or umbilicus
Umbilical Cord - Minor Infection of Cord or Navel
Umbilicus (navel) has a cloudy discharge or even some dried pus on the surface. The navel is also called the belly button or umbilicus.
Umbilical Cord - Normal Navel Care After Cord Falls Off
Questions about how to care for the navel in newborns. The navel is also called the belly button or umbilicus.
Umbilical Granuloma
A small red growth found in the navel after the cord falls off. The navel is also called the belly button or umbilicus.
Umbilical Hernia
A bulge or swelling in the area of the umbilicus (navel or belly button).
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) (Female)
A bacterial infection of the bladder. Also called cystitis
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) (Male)
A bacterial infection of the bladder. Also called cystitis
Urination Pain - Symptom (Female)
Pain, burning or stinging when passing urine. Suspect pain if a young child starts to cry while passing urine
Urination Pain - Symptom (Male)
Pain, burning or stinging when passing urine. Suspect pain if a young child starts to cry while passing urine
Use of Medicines in Sports (Care of the Young Athlete)
The primary use of medicines in sports is to treat pain and inflammation. Athletes may also take medicines to treat specific medical conditions, such as asthma or diabetes, or to treat common illnesses, like colds, congestion, cough, allergies, diarrhea, and skin infections.
Vaccine Concerns - You're Undecided
You are undecided about giving your child some of the recommended vaccines. Or you are thinking about delaying some of the vaccines.
Vaccine Reactions - Normal
A reaction to a recent immunization (vaccine) shot. Most reactions are at the injection site (such as pain, swelling, redness)
Vaccine Reactions - Specific Details
A reaction to a recent immunization (vaccine). Most reactions are at the shot site (such as pain, swelling, redness)
Vaccines - Infections They Prevent
Vaccines can protect your child from 16 severe infections. In the past, these infections killed thousands of children each year.
Viral Rash
A pink rash that is all over the body. The rash is part of a viral illness
Visiting the Doctor—Autism Toolkit
Going to the doctor can be stressful for any child. For a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), there may be extra challenges because of sensory, communication, and other symptoms. Here are some tips to help make visiting the doctor easier.
Vomiting (Age 1-5)
Vomiting is the forceful emptying (throwing up) of what is in the stomach. It’s normal for nausea (upset stomach) to come before each bout of vomiting
Vomiting (Age 6-21)
Vomiting is the forceful emptying (throwing up) of what is in the stomach. It’s normal for nausea (upset stomach) to come before each bout of vomiting.
Vomiting (Baby on Breastmilk)
Vomiting is the forceful emptying (throwing up) of what is in the stomach. It’s normal for nausea (upset stomach) to come before each bout of vomiting.
Vomiting (Baby on Formula)
Vomiting is the forceful emptying (throwing up) of what is in the stomach. It’s normal for nausea (upset stomach) to come before each bout of vomiting
Vulvitis from Soap
Irritation of the vulva (external genitals) from soap or other irritants. Mainly occurs in young girls before school age
Wart - Plantar
A wart on the bottom of the foot (plantar surface). Viral infection of the skin
Warts
Warts are small raised growths that have a rough surface. Viral infection of the skin
Weaning From the Bottle - Normal
Weaning is the replacement of bottle feedings with drinking from a cup. It means an end to nipple feedings. Weaning usually occurs easily and smoothly.
Weaning From the Bottle - Resistance
You want to stop bottle feeding, but your child resists. Excessive bottle feeding means more than 4 times per day after 6 months.
Weaning From the Breast - Normal
Weaning is the replacement of feedings from the breast with drinking from a cup or bottle. It means an end to feeding at the breast. Weaning usually occurs easily and smoothly.
Weaning From the Breast - Resistance
You want to stop breastfeeding, but your child resists. Excessive breastfeeding means nursing more than 4 times per day after 6 months. Excessive breastfeeding also means nursing for the wrong reasons.
What is a Child Neurologist?
If your child has problems involving the nervous system, a Child Neurologist has the special training and experience to treat your child. Examples of such problems are seizures, delayed speech, weakness, or headaches.
What is a Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrician?
If your child has a developmental, learning, or behavioral problem, a Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrician has the training and expertise to evaluate and care for your child. Developmental-behavioral pediatricians possess training and experience to consider, in their assessments and treatments, the medical and psychosocial aspects of children's and adolescents' developmental and behavioral problems.
What is a Pediatric Allergist/Immunologist?
If your child suffers from allergies or other problems with his immune system, a Pediatric Allergist/Immunologist has special skills to treat your child.
What is a Pediatric Anesthesiologist?
If your child has an illness, injury, or disease that requires surgery, a Pediatric Anesthesiologist has the experience and qualifications to assist in the treatment and to help ensure a successful surgery for your child.
What is a Pediatric Dentist?
Pediatric Dentists are dedicated to the oral health of children from infancy through the teen years. They have the experience and qualifications to care for a child's teeth, gums, and mouth throughout the various stages of childhood.
What is a Pediatric Dermatologist?
If your child has skin conditions such as birthmarks, eczema, warts, or psoriasis, a Pediatric Dermatologist has the experience and qualifications to treat your child. Pediatric dermatologists treat a variety of pediatric skin conditions using the latest available treatment methods. Pediatric dermatologists treat children from birth through adolescence.
What is a Pediatric Emergency Physician?
A Pediatric Emergency Physician is a specialist in the care of children and teens who are acutely ill or injured. A pediatric emergency physician is trained to care for a wide range of problems that require immediate medical help. These problems are often serious and may be life-threatening.
What is a Pediatric Endocrinologist?
If your child has problems with growth, puberty, diabetes, or other disorders related to the hormones and the glands that produce them, a Pediatric Endocrinologist may treat your child.
What is a Pediatric Gastroenterologist?
If your child has a digestive system, liver, or nutritional problem, a Pediatric Gastroenterologist has the expertise to treat your child. Digestive, liver, and nutritional problems in children often are quite different from those seen in adults. Specialized training and experience in pediatric gastroenterology are important.
What is a Pediatric Geneticist?
Fortunately, most children are born healthy with no medical problems or birth defects. However, some children are born with differences in body structure, brain development, or body chemistry that can lead to problems with health, development, school performance, and/or social interaction. Pediatric Geneticists are trained to identify the causes and natural history of these disorders. They may suggest tests and treatments that can help in understanding and caring for your child's condition. Pediatric geneticists also can help families understand whether some conditions are hereditary (coming from the genes) and offer testing to family members who may be at risk for having children with similar problems.
What is a Pediatric Hematologist/Oncologist?
If your child or teen has a blood disease or cancer, a Pediatric Hematologist/Oncologist has the experience and qualifications to evaluate and treat your child or teen. The unique nature of care of children or teens with blood diseases and cancer is learned from advanced training and experience in practice. Pediatric hematologists/oncologists treat children and teens from birth through young adulthood.
What is a Pediatric Hospitalist?
If your child has an illness or injury requiring hospitalization, he or she may be cared for by a Pediatric Hospitalist.
What is a Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist?
If your child has a recurring or persistent disease caused by an infectious agent such as bacteria, a fungus, a parasite, or other rare infection, a Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist has the experience and qualifications to help your pediatrician diagnose and treat your child. Pediatric infectious diseases specialists treat children from birth through the teen years.
What is a Pediatric Nephrologist?
If your child has kidney or urinary tract disease, bladder problems, or high blood pressure, a Pediatric Nephrologist has the special skills and experience to treat your child. Pediatric nephrologists treat children from infancy through late adolescence.
What is a Pediatric Neurosurgeon?
If your child has problems involving the head, spine, or nervous system, a Pediatric Neurosurgeon has the experience and qualifications to treat your child.
What is a Pediatric Ophthalmologist?
If your child has an eye problem, is having difficulty with a vision screening exam or has difficulty reading or learning, or needs surgery or medical treatment for an illness affecting the eyes, a Pediatric Ophthalmologist has the experience and qualifications to treat your child.
What is a Pediatric Orthopedic Surgeon?
If your child has musculoskeletal (bone) problems, a Pediatric Orthopedic Surgeon has the experience and qualifications to treat your child.
What is a Pediatric Otolaryngologist?
If your child needs surgical or complex medical treatment for illnesses or problems affecting the ear, nose, or throat, a Pediatric Otolaryngologist has the experience and qualifications to treat your child. Many general otolaryngologists provide surgical care for children. However, in many areas of the country, more specialized otolaryngology care is available for children.
What is a Pediatric Plastic Surgeon?
If your child needs surgery to fix a deformity caused by a birth defect, injury, illness, or tumor, a Pediatric Plastic Surgeon has the experience and qualifications to treat your child.
What is a Pediatric Pulmonologist?
If your child has breathing problems, or a problem with his or her lungs, a Pediatric Pulmonologist has the experience and qualifications to treat your child. Pediatric pulmonologists diagnose, treat and manage children from birth to 21 years old with breathing and lung diseases.
What is a Pediatric Radiologist?
A Pediatric Radiologist is an expert in the diagnosis of illnesses, injuries, and diseases of infants, children, and adolescents, using imaging techniques and equipment.
What is a Pediatric Rheumatologist?
If your child has complaints of pain in the musculoskeletal system (joints, muscles, bones, or tendons), other symptoms of arthritis, or an autoimmune disorder, your pediatrician may recommend a Pediatric Rheumatologist.
What is a Pediatric Sports Medicine Specialist?
If your child or teenager has an injury or illness that affects sports performance, exercise, or activity, a Pediatric Sports Medicine Specialist has the expertise, experience, and qualifications to treat his or her youth-specific problems.
What is a Pediatric Surgeon?
If your child has an illness, injury, or disease that requires surgery, a Pediatric Surgeon has the experience and qualifications to treat your child.
What is a Pediatric Urologist?
If your child has an illness or disease of the genitals or urinary tract (kidneys, ureters, bladder), a Pediatric Urologist has the experience and qualifications to treat your child.
What is a Pediatric/Neonatal Critical Care Transport Team?
If your newborn is premature or your child has a critical illness or injury requiring transportation from one medical facility to another, your newborn or child may require the care of a Pediatric/Neonatal Critical Care Transport Team.
What is an Adolescent Health Specialist?
If your child is between the ages of 11 and 21 years, he or she may benefit from the care of an Adolescent Health Specialist.
When to See a Doctor (Care of the Young Athlete)
A safe and speedy return to activity following a sports injury or an illness depends on early recognition and treatment. Knowing when to see your doctor is an important step in this process. With major injuries or illnesses, there is little doubt about the need to seek medical attention. However, it is much more difficult to know when to seek help if there is no obvious trauma or if the symptoms don’t get in the way of playing. Many overuse injuries, such as tendonitis or stress fractures, happen over time and often have subtle symptoms. The result can be a delay in diagnosis and treatment, and delays can lead to a more serious or disabling injury.
When Your Child Needs Emergency Medical Services
It is rare for children to become seriously ill with no warning. Depending on your child's symptoms, you usually should contact your child's pediatrician for advice. Early recognition and treatment of symptoms can prevent an illness or injury from getting worse or turning into an emergency.
Whining and Pestering
Whining is a verbal temper tantrum. Compared to screaming tantrums, it’s a step up the developmental ladder. Some examples of whining behavior are: A child who won’t take No for an answer. He keeps repeating his demand for something you’ve told him he can’t have or do.
Wound Infection
A break in the skin (a wound) shows signs of infection. Signs of infection include pus, spreading redness, increased pain or swelling, and fever.
Your Child and Medications—Autism Toolkit
While medications will not change your child’s autism spectrum disorder (ASD), they can be helpful when added to other treatments to help your child’s development and learning.

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